Design of experiments (DOE) is a powerful technique for process optimization that has been widely deployed in almost all types of manufacturing processes and is used extensively in product process design and development. There have not been as many efforts to apply powerful quality improvement techniques such as DOE to improve non-manufacturing processes. Factor levels often involve changing the way people work and so have to be handled carefully. It is even more important to get everyone working as a team. This paper explores the benefits and challenges in the application of DOE in non-manufacturing arena.
This study was conducted to examine the chemical and sensory characteristics of fermented worts and consumer acceptability according to added flavorings. The worts were fermented by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) following fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc citreum) at different aeration conditions. Chemical and sensory descriptive analyses were conducted to examine the effects of the fermentation conditions. The consumer acceptability of the worts with added flavorings was also examined. Organic acids, functional sugars, and ethanol were produced by L. citreum and S. cerevisiae, respectively. Ethanol concentrations ranged from 10 to 25 g/L depending on the fermentation conditions. The sensory characteristics of the fermented worts were clearly differentiated by the fermentation conditions. Yeast fermentation resulted in high intensities for certain sensory attributes such as ‘alcohol’, ‘fermented barley’, ‘fermented white grape’, and ‘grassy’. Consumer acceptability changed with different levels of sugar and lemon flavoring, and the optimum levels were determined as 14.08% sugar and 0.98% lemon flavoring. Under these conditions, it was shown that a relatively acceptable fermented wort beverage containing functional materials can be produced.
See how the diagnostic features of Design-Expert enabled a post-doctoral researcher to achieve a valid analysis, and graduate on time. Lesson learned: Checking diagnostics just might save your next experiment.
The TRW team used a combination of DOE (response surface methodology RSM) and Monte Carlo analysis to optimize a braking system where one of the objectives was to quickly generate pressure when demanded by the vehicle stability control system.
FLSmidth recently installed two turnkey SuperCell flotation machines the world's largest flotation cells at Rio Tinto's Kennecott Utah Copper concentrator near Salt Lake City, Utah. They used DOE to substantially reduce the amount of testing and fine-tuning required after installation.
In this presentation design of experiments (DOE) was applied to a chemical process. DOE together with computer modeling lead to a better understanding of the process and the defining of new conditions.
RTP Company, which compounds custom engineered thermoplastics, used Design-Expert software to determine which injection molding process conditions would optimize conductive properties for a particular material. Their DOE made it possible to explore the complete processing space and provided users with a formula to calculate the conditions that would deliver the required resistivity levels.
DOE was used to determine the optimum setting conditions for three components leading to a high Hg Yield at a lower temperature.
Statistical methods are becoming increasingly important for the pharmaceutical industry. The FDA and other regulatory and standard-setting organizations are moving swiftly to establish Quality by Design (QbD) guidance relevant to the needs of pharmaceutical manufacturing. The FDA suggests the use of design of experiments (DoE) because it provides a structured, organized method for determining the relationship between factors affecting a process and the response of that process.
Via application of response surface methods, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals substantially increased yield of an active ingredient at more robust process conditions.