Case Studies

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  1. Design of Experiments Approach Halves Development Time

    August 2018

    Optimizing the formulation of a new metalworking fluid required assessing multiple additives. Houghton International used design of experiments (DoE) to develop — in half the time required by the company’s previous methods—a line of multi-metal cutting fluids that handle steel, cast iron, aluminum and cast aluminum.

    Authors: David Slinkman and Yixing (Philip) Zhao
    Publication: Chemical Processing
  2. Design of Experiments Helps Develop New Chemical Specialty Product

    May 2018

    Design of experiments (DOE) is the design of any task that aims to describe or explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation. This article describes how DOE helps in developing a new specialty chemical product.

    Authors: Kip Howard
    Publication: Chemical Engineering World
  3. How Design of Experiments Can Improve Formulation Development

    March 2016
    Formulation development often boils down to determining the optimum combination of ingredients in a mixture, which can make the difference between success and failure in many diverse fields of research, such as materials, pharmaceuticals, adhesives and coatings. The traditional approach to experimentation changes only one process factor at a time (OFAT) or one component in a formulation. However, with this approach, it’s easy to overlook interactions of factors or components, a likely occurrence in developing formulations.
    Authors: Jerry Fireman
    Publication: R&D Magazine
  4. Equilibrium conversion, selectivity and yield optimization of the simultaneous liquid-phase etherification of isobutene and isoamylenes with ethanol over Amberlyst™ 35

    February 2016
    The efficiency of a gasoline fueled engine is highly influenced by the fuels antiknock characteristics, which depend essentially on the chemical composition. The adequate performance of a vehicle depends on a minimal volatility of the fuel, which can be expressed by several characteristics such as distillation curves, vapor pressure, vaporization enthalpy and the vapor/liquid ratio. The vapor pressure of gasoline is directly related to the emission of volatile compounds from gasoline and the ensuing combustion processes, especially in starting the engine on cold days and in continuous operation in hot days. This prospective study experimented on the product distribution at chemical equilibrium for the simultaneous liquid-phase etherification of isobutene and isoamylenes with ethanol over Amberlyst™ 35.
    Authors: R. Soto, C. Fité, E. Ramírez, R. Bringué, F. Cunill
    Publication: Fuel Processing Technology
  5. Design of Experiments Helps Develop New Specialty Chemical Product

    June 2014
    OMG Borchers used the design of experiments method to develop a mixture experiment to screen the effects of four candidate additives. The challenge was to find a second source for an associative thickener used in a family of waterborne coatings that matched the properties of the incumbent thickener in three different classes of products with a different chemical composition than the incumbent.
    Authors: OMG Borchers
    Publication: Paint & Coatings Industry Magazine
  6. Development of a Rubber-Based Product Using a Mixture Experiment: A Challenging Case Study

    August 2013

    Experimental design, modeling, and data analysis methods for mixture experiments provide for efficiently determining the component proportions that will yield a product with desired properties. This article presents a case study of the work performed to develop a new rubber formulation for an o-ring (a circular gasket) with requirements specified on 10 product properties. Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology, Vol. 29, No. 3, 2013

    Note: If interested, you may contact one of the authors, Greg Piepel, Ph.D., for a copy of the paper.

    Authors: Kaya, Yahya; Piepel, Greg F.; and Caniyilmaz, Erdal
    Publication: Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology
  7. Cure for cratering: Gel coat perfected with design of experiments software

    February 2013

    Resin manufacturer Interplastic Corp. Thermoset Resins Div. (St. Paul, Minn.), a major gel coat producer, recently developed a new gel coat with the aid of Design-Expert design of experiments software from Stat-Ease Inc.

    Authors: Black, Sara
    Publication: Composites Technology
  8. Innovative Solutions for Efficient Lamps: Mixture Optimization Using a DOE Approach

    March 2011

    DOE was used to determine the optimum setting conditions for three components leading to a high Hg Yield at a lower temperature.

    Authors: SAES Group
  9. Switch to a Double-Sided Tablet Press Solves Powder Sticking Problem

    July 2010

    Schiff Nutrition used DOE to solve an intermittent problem with a multimineral tablet sticking inside the dies of a high-speed rotary tablet press

    Authors: Schiff National
    Publication: Healthcare Packaging
  10. Optimization of a Research Diet for the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using Mixture Model MethodologyᅠAbstract

    January 2010

    Two five-week growth trials were conducted using mixture methodology to optimize a reference diet for Pacific white shrimp using krill meal, menhaden fishmeal, squid meal, and soy protein isolate (SPI).

    Authors: Forster, Ian P. et. al.
    Publication: Aquaculture
  11. Making Use of Mixture Design to Optimize Olive Oil - A Case Study

    August 2009

    Olive oil, an important commodity of the Mediterranean region and a main ingredient of their world-renowned diet (see sidebar), must meet stringent European guidelines to achieve the coveted status of "extra virgin." Oils made from single cultivars (a particular cultivated variety of the olive tree) will at times fall into the lower "virgin" category due to seasonal variation. Then it becomes advantageous to blend in one or more superior oils based on a mixture design for optimal formulation.

    Authors: Anderson, Mark J., Whitcomb, Patrick J.
    Publication: Chemical and Process Industries
  12. A Formula for Flavor

    June 2009

    Rich Products used DOE to develop an all-natural bread dough that would met the same quality and taste standards as their popular conventional bread doughs.

    Authors: Rich Products
    Publication: Food Quality magazine
  13. Optimal Blending of Rayon Fibers via Statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) Tailored for Formulation

    January 2009

    A statistically based design of experiments (DOE) approach developed specifically for mixtures was used to formulate a blend of rayon fibers that produced maximal tampon absorbency.

    Authors: Anderson, Mark J.; Lazic, Zivorad R.
  14. Design of Experiments Helps Reduce Time to Remove Aerospace Coatings (See page 21)

    September 2008

    Aerochem Inc. used DOE to develop a chemical paint remover that would remove the coating in less than 2 hours.

    Authors: Aerochem
    Publication: Aerospace Engineering & Manufacturing
  15. Mixture Design of Experiments (DOE) for Optimal Plasma Etch

    August 2008

    This article demonstrates how to uncover "sweet spots" where multiple fab-process specifications can be met in a most desirable way.

    Authors: Anderson, Mark
    Publication: Fab Engineering & Operations

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