Case Studies

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  1. Design of Experiments Approach Halves Development Time

    August 2018

    Optimizing the formulation of a new metalworking fluid required assessing multiple additives. Houghton International used design of experiments (DoE) to develop — in half the time required by the company’s previous methods—a line of multi-metal cutting fluids that handle steel, cast iron, aluminum and cast aluminum.

    Authors: David Slinkman and Yixing (Philip) Zhao
    Publication: Chemical Processing
  2. Design of Experiments Helps Develop New Chemical Specialty Product

    May 2018

    Design of experiments (DOE) is the design of any task that aims to describe or explain the variation of information under conditions that are hypothesized to reflect the variation. This article describes how DOE helps in developing a new specialty chemical product.

    Authors: Kip Howard
    Publication: Chemical Engineering World
  3. DOE, HPLC Validate Corn Ethanol Measurement Technology

    February 2018
    Mark Anderson, Stat-Ease Principal, discusses how an industrial equipment supplier made great improvements to their corn ethanol measurement process using DOE and HPLC methods.
    Authors: Mark Anderson
    Publication: Laboratory Equipment
  4. Design of Experiment Reduces Development Time for Higher-Performing Metal-Cutting Fluids

    January 2018
    The large number of interactive ingredients makes developing metalworking fluids (MWFs) a complex process. Design of Experiment (DOE) methodology recently helped chemists develop an MWF using half the number of formulations typically necessary. The DOE software accurately projected that the emulsion stability of the optimized formulation would be substantially better than the current product.
    Authors: David Slinkman and Yixing (Philip) Zhao
    Publication: Tribology & Lubrication Technology
  5. Equilibrium conversion, selectivity and yield optimization of the simultaneous liquid-phase etherification of isobutene and isoamylenes with ethanol over Amberlyst™ 35

    February 2016
    The efficiency of a gasoline fueled engine is highly influenced by the fuels antiknock characteristics, which depend essentially on the chemical composition. The adequate performance of a vehicle depends on a minimal volatility of the fuel, which can be expressed by several characteristics such as distillation curves, vapor pressure, vaporization enthalpy and the vapor/liquid ratio. The vapor pressure of gasoline is directly related to the emission of volatile compounds from gasoline and the ensuing combustion processes, especially in starting the engine on cold days and in continuous operation in hot days. This prospective study experimented on the product distribution at chemical equilibrium for the simultaneous liquid-phase etherification of isobutene and isoamylenes with ethanol over Amberlyst™ 35.
    Authors: R. Soto, C. Fité, E. Ramírez, R. Bringué, F. Cunill
    Publication: Fuel Processing Technology
  6. Conquer Pilot Plant Challenges

    November 2015
    A pilot plant usually plays a key role in process development by providing essential data related to operation, safety, scale-up and other issues. The value of the pilot plant depends on the validity of the data captured. Planned experimentation is crucial to gathering meaningful data, and design of experiments (DOE) is the gold standard for finding results which are statistically significant.
    Authors: Ron Stites
    Publication: Chemical Processing
  7. Design of Experiments (DoE): Optimizing Products and Processes Efficiently

    November 2014

    Learn how DoE can help save time and money in process design and optimization with this primer. (To read this article, sign up for an account at .)

    Authors: Wilhelm Kleppmann
    Publication: Chemical Engineering Magazine
  8. Use of the Design of Experiments to Develop a Scalable Route to a Key Chirally Pure Arylpiperazine

    March 2011

    In this presentation design of experiments (DOE) was applied to a chemical process. DOE together with computer modeling lead to a better understanding of the process and the defining of new conditions.

    Authors: Aptuit
  9. Correcting Low First-Pass Yield

    December 2008

    The Williamette Valley Co. (WVCO) increased manufacturing yield by designing an experiment to simultaneously measure the impact of key factors on critical responses

    Authors: Williamette Valley Co.
    Publication: Quality Magazine
  10. Rethink Experiment Design

    November 2006

    This article details the advantages of design of experiments (DOE) over the OFAT (changing only one factor at a time) approach to experimentation. By varying factors at two levels each, but simultaneously rather than one at a time, experimenters can uncover important interactions.

    Authors: Anderson, Mark & Whitcomb, Pat
    Publication: Chemical Processing
  11. Pilot-to-Production Requires Design of Experiments to Unclog Herbicide

    January 2000

    Case study on how Aventis CropScience used DOE for Herbicide development.

    Authors: Aventis CropScience
    Publication: Manuscript
  12. Find the Optimal Formulation for Mixtures

    April 1998
    A version of this article appeared in Chemical Engineering Progress. (chem-2.pdf 56KB) April 1998.
    Authors: Anderson, Mark & Whitcomb, Pat
    Publication: Chemical Engineering Progress
  13. Statistical Design of Experiments for Quality Improvements of Fertilizer Products

    April 1998

    Statistical tools, especially design of experiments (DOE), provides the means for quality improvement of DiAmmonium Phosphate (DAP) and related fertilizer products. Depletion of high grade phosphate ores in Florida and elsewhere makes it increasingly difficult to meet customer specifications for nitrogen content of DAP. Urea or ammonia can be used as nitrogen supplements, but this adds cost to the final product. This paper lays out a special form of DOE, called two-level factorial design, which can be used to maximize nitrogen content in DAP, and make it less susceptible to impurities in lower grade phosphates.

    Authors: Anderson, Mark J.; Battacharjee, P. K.; Whitcomb, Patrick J.
    Publication: American Institute of Chemical Engineering Proceedings
  14. Optimize Your Process-Optimization Efforts

    December 1996

    What would you do it confronted with an "opportunity" like this? A chemist compound in the laboratory. The marketing people anticipate big profits but only if the product can be made economically at high yields. The chemist provides a very basic recipe sheet with suggested conditions. Your job is to scale up the process as quickly as possible. Or, what if you face a different opportunity? A competitor makes a minor, but noticeable, improvement to its product while simultaneously reducing its price. Your sales group fears that your product might get knocked out of the market. Your job is to fine-tune the existing process at the plant to get more yield with better product quality.

    Authors: Anderson, Mark & Whitcomb, Pat
    Publication: Chemical Engineering Progress

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